Books and Articles: 

Allen, Richard B. 2015. European Slave Trading in the Indian Ocean, 1500–1850. Ohio University Press.

Alpers, Edward A. 1975. Ivory and Slaves: Changing Pattern of International Trade in East Central Africa to the Later Nineteenth Century. University of California Press.

______. 1997. “The African Diaspora in the Northwestern Indian Ocean: Reconsideration of an Old Problem, New Directions for Research.” Comparative Studies of South Asia, Africa, and the Middle East 17 (2): 62-81.

_______. 2000. “Recollecting Africa: Diasporic Memory in the Indian Ocean World.” African Studies Review 43, no. 1: 83-90.

______ . 2014. The Indian Ocean in world history, New Oxford world history. Oxford ; New York: Oxford University Press.

Alpers, Edward A., Gwyn Campbell, and Michael Salman. 2007. Resisting Bondage in Indian Ocean Africa and Asia. Routledge.

Basu, Helene. 1993. “The Siddi and the Cult of Bava Gor in Gujarat.” Journal of Indian Anthropological Society 28: 289-300.

______. 1995. “Muslim Shrines as Boundary Markers of a Cult Region: The Network of Siddi Saints in Western India.” In Pilgrimage: Concepts, Themes, Issues, and Methodology, edited by J. Makhan, 157-72. New Delhi: South Asia Books

______. 2000. “Theater of Memory: Performances of Ritual Kinship of the African Diaspora in Sind/Pakistan.” In Culture, Creation, and Procreation in South Asia, ed. A. Rao and M. Boeck, pp-243-70. Oxford: Berghahn.

______. 2007. “Drumming and Praying: Sidi at the Interface of Spirit Possession and Islam.” In Struggling with History: Islam and Cosmopolitanism in the Indian Ocean World, edited by E Simpson and K. Kresse, 291-323. London: Hurst.

______. 2008. “A Gendered Indian Ocean Site: Mai Mishra, African Spirit Possession and the Sidi Women in Gujarat.” In Journeys and Dwellings: Indian Ocean Themes in South Asia, edited by Helene Basu, 227-56. New Delhi: Orient Longman.

Campbell, Gwyn. 2004. Structure of Slavery in Indian Ocean Africa and Asia. Routledge.

Campbell, Gwyn, Suzanne Miers, and Joseph Calder Miller. 2007. Women and Slavery: Africa, the Indian Ocean World, and the Medieval North Atlantic. Ohio University Press.

Catalin-Jairazbhoy, Amy, and Edward A. Alpers (Eds.). 2004. Sidis and Scholars: Essays on African Indians. New Delhi: Rainbow Publishers.

Clarence-Smith, William Gervase. 2013. The Economics of the Indian Ocean Slave Trade in the Nineteenth Century. Routledge.

Collins, Robert O. 2006. “The African Slave Trade to Asia and the Indian Ocean Islands.” African and Asian Studies 5 (3-4): 325-47.

Drewal, Henry John. 2013. “Soulful Stitching: Patchwork Quilts by Africans (Siddis) of India.” African Arts. 46: 6–17.

Eaton, Richard M. 2005 “Malik Ambar (1548-1626): The Rise and Fall of Military Slavery.” In A Social History of the Deccan, 1300-1761: Eight Indian Lives. pp 105-128.

Farhat, Sultana: 2013. “Ethnicity and Healing Rituals in Gwadar, Balochistan, Pakistan.” The Journal of the Middle East and Africa, v4 n2 (May-August 2013), pp. 169-185.

Harris, Joseph E. 1971. The African Presence in Asia: Consequences of the East African Slave Trade. Evanston: Northwestern University Press.

Hawley, John C. 2008. India in Africa, Africa in India: Indian Ocean Cosmopolitanisms. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.

Jayasuriya, Shihan de Silva. 2009. African Identity in Asia: Cultural Effects of Forced Migration. Princeton, NJ: Markus Wiener Publishers.

Jayasuriya, Shihan de Silva, and Richard Pankhurst. eds. 2003. The African Diaspora in the Indian Ocean. Trenton, NJ: Africa World Press.

Khalique, Amna. 2009. The Peoples of African Descent in Pakistan: Sheedis and Their Role in Sindhi History, 11-40. Saarbrucken: VDM Verlag.

Llewellyn-Jones, Rosie. 2011. “The Colonial Response to African Slaves in British India—Two Contrasting Cases.” African and Asian Studies 10 (1): 59-70.

Obeng, J. Pashington. 2007. Shaping Membership, Defining Nation: The Cultural Politics of African Indians in South Asia. Lexington Books.

Pescatello, Ann M. 1977. “The African Presence in Portuguese India.” Journal of Asian History 11 (1): 26-48.

Prasad, Kiran Kamal, and Jean-Pierre Angenot. 2008. TADIA, the African Diaspora in Asia: Explorations on a Less Known Fact. Jana Jagrati Prakashana on behalf the Tadia Society.

Robbins, Kenneth X., and J. McLeod. 2006. African Elites of India/ Habshi Amarat. New Jersey: Grantha.

Sadiq Ali, Shanti. 1996. The African Dispersal in the Deccan: From Medieval to Modern Times, 157-192. New Delhi: Orient Longman.

Shroff, Beheroze. 2008. “Spiritual Journeys: Parsis and Sidi Saints.” In Journeys and Dwellings: Indian Ocean Themes in South Asia, edited by Helene Basu, pp. 256-75. New Delhi: Orient Longman.

______. 2013. “‘Goma is Going On’: Sidis of Gujarat.” African Arts 46: 18–25.

Walker, Timothy. “Slaves or Soldiers? African Conscripts in Portuguese India, 1857-60.” In Slavery and South Asian History, edited by Indrani Chatterjee and Richard M. Eaton, 234-261. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.

Yimene, Ababu Minda. 2004. An African Indian Community in Hyderabad: Siddi Identity, Its Maintenance and Change. Cuvillier Verlag.